How Present Lithium-Ion Batteries Work
Components of a Battery
The most basic form of any rechargeable galvanic battery cell consists of a positively charged cathode and a negatively charged anode that are made of two different metals, a separator between both electrodes, and a conductive paste called the electrolyte. As shown on the right, two different metals have been inserted into a potato to form a battery. This is one of the simplest ways to make a battery. The porous structure of the potato acts as the separator. The sodium, calcium, and potassium ions within the potato act as the electrolyte, transferring charge between the anode and cathode.
How a Lithium-Ion Battery Works
In this lithium-ion battery, an anode made of graphene and a cathode made of a lithium substance form a rechargeable cell. Lithium is used in place of alternative elements due to its lightweight and energy efficient properties. In this diagram, the lithium ions are flowing through the electrolyte toward the cathode, as their electrons move through the circuit, powering device (A).